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Unit 28 (P1, M1, D1): Web Architecture and Components

Outline the web architecture and components which enable internet and web functionality (P1)

Web Architecture

Internet Service Providers (ISP)

An internet service provider offers users the use of the internet. ISP companies like BT or Virgin provides the users with a variety of software packages which include a username, password and access to a phone number with a modem.


Web Hosting Services

There are many different types of Web Hosting services such as Shared Web Hosting. This is a service that allows other users to host their websites on a web server along with other websites. Shared Web Hosting is cheaper and is commonly used by Bloggers, Website Designers, e-commerce stores and small businesses. A disadvantage of this type of hosting is that it is slower and less reliable because websites take up all the band width or may cause the server to malfunction which leads to all the websites crashing or having problems. Depending on the host, it can come with SSL support and able to buy a unique IP address which you can customise.


The other service is called Dedicated Web Hosting. This allows you to have an entire server along with its resource capabilities all to yourself. This allows you to have as much bandwidth and memory your website needs to run. The advantage of Dedicated Web Hosting is that it is reliable, secure and flexible. However, Dedicated Web Hosting is very expensive you it cost a lot of money to maintain.


Domain Structure

A domain structure is a group of computers which maintains its own security and accounts management on a local level, for example the primary domain controller. All logins for local accounts are done within the domain, and it has its own servers for locally logged on users much like our local school network.


Domain Name

Domain names are used to identify one or more IP addresses. They are used in URLs to identify webpages, for example:

https://www.google.co.uk/?gws_rd=ssl#q=ThisIsAnExample&safe=active&surl=1

The domain name would be google.co.uk.


Every Domain name has a suffix that identifies the top level domain it belongs to. There are a limited number of domain suffixes which consist of the following:

  • gov - Government agencies

  • edu - Educational institutions

  • org - Organisations (non-profit)

  • mil - Military

  • com - Commercial business

  • net - Network organisations

  • uk - United Kingdom

  • ca - Canada

  • and many more


As the internet is based on IP addresses, every web server requires a Domain Name System (DNS) server to translate domain names into IP addresses. Domain names are preferred over IP addresses because domain names are easier to remember as they are usually short names or abbreviation of a companies name.


When choosing a domain name for your website, you must take into consideration the user of the website. You want to make it as easy as possible for them to find your website meaning you must make your domain memorable and short. Furthermore, your domain name should be relevant to your companies name since it makes it easier to find.